Polska jest krajem w środkowej Europie.Polska jest krajem o powierzchni 312 tys. km2 i 38 milionów mieszkańców.Stolicą Polski jest Warszawa (1,5miliona mieszkańców). Głowne miasta Polski to Kraków, Poznań, Katowice, Wrocław.Około 10 milionów Polaków mieszka za granicą.Duże skupiska Polaków znajdują się w Stanach Zjednoczonych.
Olonkho - a heroic epic tale of the Sakha people. The poetic tales, which vary from 10,000 to 20,000 verses (or more) in length, are performed by the Olonkho singer and story-teller.
The longest olonkhos are sung during up to seven nights. "Nyurgun Bootur the Swift", the most well-known olonkho, consists of more than 36,000 verses.
Olonkho is the one of the oldest epic arts of the Turkic peoples, the term Olonkho refers to the entire Sakha epic tradition as well as its central epic. Today, it is still incidentally performed in the Sakha Republic, situated in the far east of the Russian Federation.
The poetic tales are performed by the Olonkho singer and story-teller in two parts: a sung part in verse alternates with the prosaic part composed of recitatives. In addition to possessing good acting and singing skills, the narrator must be a master of eloquence and poetic improvisation. The epic consists of numerous legends about ancient warriors, deities, spirits and animals, but also addresses contemporary events, such as the disintegration of nomadic society.
Given that each community had its own narrator with a rich repertoire, numerous versions of Olonkho circulated. The tradition was developed within the family context for entertainment and as a means of education. Reflecting Yakut beliefs, it also bears witness to the way of life of a small nation struggling for survival at times of political unrest and under difficult climatic and geographical conditions.
The political and technological changes in twentieth-century Russia have threatened the existence of the epic tradition in the Sakha Republic. Although there has been a growing interest in Olonkho since the perestroika years, this tradition is endangered in view of the very low number of practitioners.